S235JR steel, also known as 1.0038 steel, is a prominent non-alloy structural steel grade. This type of hot rolled steel is widely integrated into various industrial applications.

Defined by the European standard EN 10025-2, it is part of the S series steel grades. These are known for their distinct minimum yield strengths, including variants like S275 and S355. ¹

This article delves into the unique properties of S235JR steel, its applications, and recent academic insights about its characteristics and performance, particularly in the defense sector.

Erosion Resistance and Structural Integrity

A key aspect of S235JR steel’s utility in defense applications is its resistance to erosion processes. Although this attribute has been relatively understudied, recent research has begun to shed light on this critical property.

This steel’s erosion resistance, particularly against flow cavitation, and its degradation mechanisms, such as erosion rate and surface roughness development, are influenced by its material properties and cavitation intensities. 

Notably, an increase in flow velocity has been linked to a linear increase in the erosion rate of S235JR steel. ²,³ These findings are vital in defense contexts where materials are often exposed to dynamic environmental conditions and stresses.

Microstructural Robustness

The microstructural integrity of S235JR steel, especially when subjected to spatial stress states, is another area of focus. Research utilizing the modified Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman material model has explored the failure criteria of this steel. It accounts for the effects of microstructural drama, while establishing a connection between any material strength parameters and microstructural changes that have been caused by plastic deformation.⁴ 

Materials are often subjected to extreme stresses and strains, especially in defense applications. Therefore, it is important that these microstructural dynamics are understood. That way, the longevity and reliability of steel components can be assured.

Weldability and Combinability

One of the benefits of S235JR is its weldability to other structural steels, including S460MC. This can be without heat treatment. The chemical compositions of these steels and their interaction with welding materials, like rutile cored filler metal, have been studied to optimize their combinability. 

Such research helps us to understand what is needed for the construction of complex defense machinery and structures. Different steel grades are often welded together for enhanced performance and resilience. ⁵

Find S235JR Steel at Masteel

At Masteel, these recent academic insights continue to inform our understanding and application of S235JR steel. This steel’s erosion resistance, microstructural robustness, and excellent weldability make it versatile. Therefore it is a strong candidate for a range of defense applications.

From constructing robust machinery to ensuring the durability of structural components, S235JR steel has a crucial role to play because of its material properties. We invite readers to learn more about Masteel’s S235JR structural steel plates. That way you can understand how this steel can meet your specific industrial needs. 

With a solid grounding in the latest research and a commitment to quality, S235JR steel continues to be a staple in the defense sector and broader industrial areas. This is because it is the perfect blend of versatility and strength.


  1. S235JR Material | 1.0038 Steel Equivalent, Properties, Composition. The World Material. https://www.theworldmaterial.com/1-0038-steel-s235jr-material/. Accessed 10th January 2024. 
  2. Busko M, Krella A, Marchewicz A, Zakrzewska D. Effect of Thermal Treatment and Erosion Aggressiveness on Resistance of S23JR Steel to Cavitation and Slurry. Materials (Basel). 2021;14(6): 1456. doi:10.3390/m14061456.
  3. Krella A, Marchewicz A, Zakrzewska D. The resistance of S235JR steel to cavitation erosion. Wear. 2020;452-453(1):203-295. doi:10/1016/j.wear.2020.203295.
  4. Kossakowski P. Microstructural failure criteria for S235JR steel subjected to spatial stress states. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;15: 195-205. doi: 10.1016/j.acme.2014.02.008.
  5. Yilmaz A. Assessment of Combinability of S235JR-S460MC Structural Steels on Fatigue Performance. Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals. 2023. doi: 10.1007/s1266-023-03113-x.